This is very rare and is associated with multi-male, multi-female group compositions. This means that mating occurs with only a single member of the opposite sex because males and females are very far apart.
As a result, the men with the most land and resources gained the most social power, and they typically had hundreds, if not thousands, of wives. Females compete for males and may be larger and more colorful than males.
In the spotted sandpiper, for example, females compete for territories in order to attract males. On some occasions, there would be mating amongst all members of a tribe. Evidence from deoxyribonucleic acid DNA studies of birds, mammals, and other species has shown that extra-pair copulations can result in fertilized eggs so that a presumably "monogamous" male or female may in fact have more than one mate. Which mating system evolves is influenced by the relative parental investment of each sex and the ability of one sex to monopolize members of the opposite sex, which in turn may be driven by the abundance and distribution of resources such as food or nesting sites.
An important association is that polygyny is associated with a higher pathogen load in an area which may make having good genes in a male increasingly important. The genes required for MR in bacteriophage T4 are largely the same as the genes required for allelic recombination. In simplest terms, definitions of mating systems are based on how many mates an individual acquires during the breeding season.
These genes can be associated with improvements in appearance, mating, and the functioning of internal body systems. Regarding sexual dimorphism see the section about animals above , humans are in the intermediate group with moderate sex differences in body size but with relatively large testes. Based on a phylogenetic analysis, Dacks and Roger  proposed that facultative sex was present in the common ancestor of all eukaryotes. This is consistent with the theory that if women raise the children alone, men can concentrate on the mating effort.
In order for a bacterium to bind, take up and recombine donor DNA into its own chromosome, it must first enter a special physiological state termed natural competence. Grayling butterflies Hipparchia semele engage in resource defense polygyny, where females choose a territorial male based on the best oviposition site.
Posted by: Dujin | on October 2, 2012
Because of differences in the amount of energy invested in producing gametes eggs are costly, sperm are not , finding a mate, and rearing offspring, the costs and benefits of a particular mating system may be different for males and females. A member of one sex within the social group mates with any member of the opposite sex. This is associated with one-male, multi-female group compositions.
Mating systems are also complicated by the fact that individuals of some species perform extra-pair copulations, which are copulations with individuals other than the mate. Mixed mating systems, in which plants use two or even all three mating systems, are not uncommon. In the spotted sandpiper, for example, females compete for territories in order to attract males.
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